Ann Lab Med 2019; 39(3): 271-277  https://doi.org/10.3343/alm.2019.39.3.271
Small Red Blood Cell Fraction on the UF-1000i Urine Analyzer as a Screening Tool to Detect Dysmorphic Red Blood Cells for Diagnosing Glomerulonephritis
Hyunjung Kim, M.D.1, Young Ok Kim, M.D.2, Yonggoo Kim, M.D.1, Jin-Soon Suh, M.D.3, Eun-Jung Cho, M.D.1, and Hae Kyung Lee , M.D.1
Departments of 1Laboratory Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, and 3Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding author: Hae Kyung Lee, M.D. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9560-862X
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 271 Cheonbo-ro, Uijeongbu 11765, Korea
Tel: +82-31-820-3159
Fax: +82-31-847-6266
E-mail: hkl@catholic.ac.kr
Received: February 8, 2018; Revised: June 28, 2018; Accepted: November 7, 2018; Published online: May 1, 2019.
© Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Dysmorphic red blood cells (dRBCs) are first-line biomarkers for detecting glomerulonephritis (GN) in patients with hematuria. The UF-1000i system (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan), based on flow cytometry, provides small red blood cell (RBC) values (UF-1000i [UF]-%sRBCs). We evaluated the clinical application of UF-%sRBCs for detecting %dRBCs and GN.
Methods: Urine samples of 103 patients (47 with GN; 56 without GN [NGN]) were analyzed using UF-1000i urinalysis, phase-contrast microscopy (PCM), and urine chemistry. Serum creatinine (mg/dL), serum albumin (g/dL), serum protein (mg/dL), urine protein (mg/dL), and urea nitrogen (mg/dL) levels were measured using an automated chemical analyzer. To determine the cut-off level of predicting GN, ROC curve was analyzed.
Results: UF-%sRBCs, %dRBCs, urine protein, serum creatinine, and estimated-glomerular filtration rate differed between the GN and NGN groups, with the greatest differences detected for UF-%sRBCs and %dRBCs (P<0.0001). In ROC curve analysis, urine protein had the highest area under the curve (0.828), followed by %dRBCs (0.771) and UF-%sRBCs (0.745). To screen for GN, the best cut-off values of UF-%sRBCs and %dRBCs were >40.5% and >6.7%, respectively. %dRBCs (P=0.0001) and UF-%sRBCs (P=0.0006) differed between the GN and NGN groups in patients with isolated hematuria but without proteinuria.
Conclusions: UF-%sRBCs had similar diagnostic power to %dRBCs determined by PCM for identifying patients with GN. UF-%sRBCs may be more useful for diagnosing GN in patients with isolated hematuria. Predicting %dRBCs using UF-1000i will provide information on possible GN in patients presenting with asymptomatic hematuria.
Keywords: Small red blood cell, Dysmorphic red blood cell, Hematuria, Glomerulonephritis, UF-1000i, Screening



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