Ann Lab Med 2019; 39(4): 358-366  https://doi.org/10.3343/alm.2019.39.4.358
The Incidence and Immunophenotypic and Genetic Features of JL1 Expressing Cells and the Therapeutic Potential of an Anti-JL1 Antibody in De Novo Pediatric Acute Leukemias
Sang Hyuk Park, M.D., Ph.D.1,*, Eunkyoung You, M.D.2,*, Chan-Jeoung Park , M.D., Ph.D.3, Seongsoo Jang, M.D., Ph.D.3, Young-Uk Cho, M.D., Ph.D.3, Chan Hee Yoon3, Kyung-Nam Koh, M.D., Ph.D.4, Ho-Joon Im, M.D., Ph.D.4, and Jong-Jin Seo, M.D., Ph.D.4
1Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan, Korea; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Baik Hospital, Busan, Korea; Departments of 3Laboratory Medicine and 4Pediatrics, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding author: Chan-Jeoung Park, M.D., Ph.D. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4396-8348
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea
Tel: +82-2-3010-4508, Fax: +82-2-478-0884
E-mail: cjpark@amc.seoul.kr
*These two authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: September 30, 2018; Revised: November 1, 2018; Accepted: January 21, 2019; Published online: July 1, 2019.
© Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: JL1 is a newly identified CD43 epitope that specifically recognizes leukemic cells. We analyzed the incidence of JL1 expression and compared the clinical, immunophenotypic, and genetic characteristics of de novo pediatric acute leukemia patients with respect to JL1 expression status to determine the therapeutic potential of an anti-JL1 antibody.
Methods: Seventy-eight patients with pediatric acute leukemia (52 with ALL, 26 with AML) diagnosed between December 2014 and January 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Flow cytometry for JL1 expression was performed at diagnosis. Clinical, immunophenotypic, and genetic characteristics were compared with respect to JL1 expression status by the Student t-test/Mann–Whitney U test and chi-square test/Fisher’s exact test.
Results: The incidence of JL1 expression was 76.9% and 84.6% in ALL and AML patients, respectively. ALL patients with JL1 expression showed higher CD10 and cytoplasmic IgM expressions than those without JL1 expression (P=0.022 and 0.003, respectively) and were associated with TCF3-PBX1 and KMT2A-MLLT1 translocations. AML patients with JL1 expression showed higher CD13 and lower CD65 and CD15 expressions than those without JL1 expression (P=0.013, 0.007, and 0.024, respectively) and were associated with RUNX1-RUNX1T1, PML-RARA, and CBFB-MYH11 translocations. The JL1 expression incidence did not differ between ALL and AML, and the JL1 expression status did not affect prognosis.
Conclusions: Our findings support the potential therapeutic role of anti-JL1 monoclonal antibodies; JL1 expression was associated with specific immunophenotypes and genetic abnormalities. Future studies should examine the prognostic impact of JL1 expression in pediatric acute leukemias.
Keywords: Immunophenotypic, Genetic, JL1 expression, Pediatric acute leukemias, Prognosis



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