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  • Brief Communication2023-01-01 Transfusion and Cell Therapy

    Improvement of Anti-CD36 Antibody Detection via Monoclonal Antibody Immobilization of Platelet Antigens Assay by Using Selected Monoclonal Antibodies

    Xiuzhang Xu , Ph.D., Dawei Chen , Ph.D., Xin Ye , M.D., Wenjie Xia , Ph.D., Yuan Shao , Ph.D., Jing Deng , M.T., Yangkai Chen , M.T., Haoqiang Ding , M.T., Jing Liu , M.S., Yaori Xu , M.T., Sentot Santoso , Ph.D., and Yongshui Fu , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2023; 43(1): 86-91

    Abstract : Antibodies against human CD36 are responsible for several immune-mediated disorders. The detection of anti-CD36 antibodies using the standard monoclonal antibody (mAb) immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) assay is hampered by a high frequency of false-negative results, most likely due to competitive inhibition of the mAb used as the capture antibody. We generated a panel of mouse mAbs against CD36 and seven hybridomas (GZ-3, GZ-13, GZ-70, GZ-143, GZ-413, GZ-507, and GZ-608), which were selected for MAIPA assays, as they reacted with mouse and human CD36. Fourteen anti-CD36 sera were assayed; all of which showed a positive reaction in a PakPlus (Immucor GTI Diagnostics, Inc., Waukesha, WI, USA) ELISA-based screening (optical density: 0.257–2.292). When the reference anti-CD36 mAb FA6-152 was used in the MAIPA assay, only 6/14 (42.9%) sera displayed a positive reaction. In contrast, anti-CD36 antibodies were detected in 13/14 (92.9%) sera when GZ-70 and GZ-608 mAbs were used. This significant improvement resulted in the identification of anti-CD36 antibodies by an antigen capture assay. Since patient’s platelets possibly carrying rare native antigens are used, this method will facilitate the identification of new platelet antibodies against CD36 that are involved in immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and other diseases, such as transfusion-related acute lung injury.

  • Letter to the Editor2022-07-01 Clinical Microbiology

    The First Case of Clostridium saudiense Bacteremia in a Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Eungjun Yoon , M.D., Tae Yeul Kim , M.D., Won Young Heo , M.D., Onkyun Kang , M.T., Hui-Jin Yu , M.D., Joon Hyeok Lee , M.D., Ph.D., Jae-Hoon Ko , M.D., Ph.D., Nam Yong Lee , M.D., Ph.D., and Hee Jae Huh , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 491-493
  • Editorial2023-01-01

    Cost-effective BRCA Testing in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    Myungshin Kim , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2023; 43(1): 3-4
  • Letter to the Editor2022-03-01 Diagnostic Hematology

    Coexistence of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia and Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia: Careful Consideration in Diagnosis

    Joo-Heon Park , M.D., Hyun-Woo Choi , M.D., Ph.D., and Myung-Geun Shin , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(2): 278-281
  • Letter to the Editor2021-11-01 Diagnostic Immunology

    Necessity of a Standardized Reporting System of Antiphospholipid Antibody Tests: Relevance for COVID-19

    La-He Jearn , M.D. and Think-You Kim , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2021; 41(6): 601-603
  • Original Article2023-03-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Comparative Analysis of the Molecular Characteristics of Group B Streptococcus Isolates Collected from Pregnant Korean Women Using Whole-genome Sequencing

    Yangsoon Lee , M.D., Ph.D., Hye Gyung Bae , M.D., Ph.D., Dongju Won , M.D., Ph.D., Woobin Yun , M.S., Hyukmin Lee , M.D., Ph.D., Jong Rak Choi , M.D., Ph.D., Young Uh , M.D., Ph.D., and Kyungwon Lee , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2023; 43(2): 180-186

    Abstract : Background: The incidence of early- and late-onset sepsis and meningitis in neonates due to maternal rectovaginal group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization may differ with serotype distribution and clonal complex (CC). CC17 strains are associated with hypervirulence and poor disease outcomes. GBS serotypes are distinguished based on the polysaccharide capsule, the most important virulence factor. We determined the sequence type distribution of GBS isolates from pregnant women in Korea and validated whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based prediction of antimicrobial susceptibility and capsular serotypes in GBS isolates. Methods: Seventy-five GBS isolates collected from pregnant Korean women visiting Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju, Korea between 2017 and 2019 were subjected to WGS using the NovaSeq 6000 system (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Multilocus sequence types, serotypes, antimicrobial resistance genes, and hemolysin operon mutations were determined by WGS, and the latter three were compared with the results of conventional phenotypic methods. Results: The predominant lineage was CC1 (37.3%), followed by CC19 (32.0%), CC12 (17.3%), and CC17 (4.0%). All isolates were cps typeable (100%, (75/75), and 89.3% of cps genotypes (67/75) were concordant with serotypes obtained using latex agglutination. The cps genotypes of the 75 isolates were serotypes III (24.0%), V (22.7%), and VIII (17.3%). All isolates harboring intact ermB and tet were non-susceptible to erythromycin and tetracycline, respectively. Three non-hemolytic strains had 1-bp frameshift insertions in cylE. Conclusions: The low prevalence of CC17 GBS colonization may explain the low frequency of neonatal GBS infections. WGS is a useful tool for simultaneous genotyping and antimicrobial resistance determination.

  • Brief Communication2022-11-01 Diagnostic Immunology

    Immunogenicity of Third-dose BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Following Two Doses of ChAdOx1 in Health Care Workers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Jung-Ah Kim , M.D., Hae In Bang , M.D., Jeong Won Shin , M.D., Ph.D., Yoonhye Park , M.T., Saerom Kim , M.T., Mi-Young Kim , M.T., Eui Young Jang , M.T., Woo Yong Shin , M.D., Jieun Kim , M.D., Ph.D., Rojin Park , M.D., Ph.D., and Tae Youn Choi , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(6): 688-692

    Abstract : Following the original severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 strain (Wuhan-Hu-1) in December 2019, the Delta variant in May 2021 and the Omicron variant in December 2021 were classified as variants of concern. The pandemic has been ongoing for more than two years, and the three-dose vaccination rate has reached approximately 50% in Korea. We analyzed anti-S antibodies (Abs) and neutralizing Abs (NAbs) in 32 healthcare workers at a university hospital, focusing on the first to third doses of ChAdOx1-ChAdOx1-BNT162b2, which is the most common vaccination regimen in Korea. Antibodies were analyzed at eight time points according to the vaccine regimen. The first to third doses of ChAdOx1-ChAdOx1-BNT162b2 produced high Ab concentrations; NAb concentrations after the third dose were predicted to remain high for a longer period than those after the first and second doses. The effectiveness of a second dose of ChAdOx1 in the real world was demonstrated by analyzing samples collected during an outbreak that occurred in the study period, 4–5 months after the second dose. The relative risk ratio was 88.0%, and the efficacy of the second ChAdOx1 dose was 12.0% (P

  • Brief Communication2022-07-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Performance of BD MAX Group B Streptococcus (GBS) Assay without Enrichment for the Detection of GBS

    Sewhan Um , Jaeyoung Her , Si Hyun Kim , Ph.D., Sae Am Song , M.D., Ph.D., Young Nam Kim , M.D., Ph.D., and Jeong Hwan Shin , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 478-481

    Abstract : Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important pathogen causing neonatal early-onset disease. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of BD Max GBS assay (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) without enrichment (direct BDM) for detecting GBS using vaginal and rectal specimens in comparison with culture. In total, 716 specimens collected from 358 pregnant women between June 2018 and May 2020 were included in this study. Bacterial culture was performed using ChromID Strep B agar (bioMérieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France), and species identification results were confirmed using the VITEK-MS system (bioMérieux). The sensitivity of direct BDM for vaginal and rectal specimens was 75.0% and 100%, respectively. Thirteen specimens showed discrepant results: 10 false-negative results in the vaginal specimens and three false-positive results in the rectal specimens. The overall agreement between direct BDM and culture was 98.9% (354/358). The final sensitivity and specificity of direct BDM were 98.5% and 99.0%, respectively. Discrepant results—one false-negative and three false-positives—were obtained for four specimens. Direct BDM shows a good diagnostic performance and will be useful for GBS screening within a few hours.

  • Review Article2023-09-01

    Artificial Intelligence in Point-of-Care Testing

    Adil I. Khan , M.Sc., Ph.D., Mazeeya Khan , M.Sc., and Raheeb Khan , B.Sc.

    Ann Lab Med 2023; 43(5): 401-407

    Abstract : With the projected increase in the global population, current healthcare delivery models will face severe challenges. Rural and remote areas, whether in developed or developing countries, are characterized by the same challenges: the unavailability of hospitals, lack of trained and skilled staff performing tests, and poor compliance with quality assurance protocols. Point-of-care testing using artificial intelligence (AI) is poised to be able to address these challenges. In this review, we highlight some key areas of application of AI in point-of-care testing, including lateral flow immunoassays, bright-field microscopy, and hematology, demonstrating this rapidly expanding field of laboratory medicine.

  • Original Article2023-01-01 Diagnostic Immunology

    Indirect Method for Estimation of Reference Intervals of Inflammatory Markers

    Taewon Kang , B.S., Jeaeun Yoo , M.D., Dong Wook Jekarl , M.D., Hyojin Chae , M.D., Myungshin Kim , M.D., Yeon-Joon Park , M.D., Eun-Jee Oh , M.D., and Yonggoo Kim , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2023; 43(1): 55-63

    Abstract : Background: The direct method for reference interval (RI) estimating is limited due to the requirement of resources, difficulties in defining a non-diseased population, or ethical problems in obtaining samples. We estimated the RI for inflammatory biomarkers using an indirect method (RII). Methods: C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and presepsin (PSEP) data of patients visiting a single hospital were retrieved from April 2009 to April 2021. Right-skewed data were transformed using the Box-Cox transformation method. A mixed population of non-diseased and diseased distributions was assumed, followed by latent profile analysis for the two classes. The intersection point of the distribution curve was estimated as the RI. The influence of measurement size was evaluated as the ratio of abnormal values and adjustment (n×bandwidth) of the distribution curve. Results: The RIs estimated by the proposed RII method (existing method) were as follows: CRP, 0–4.1 (0–4.7) mg/L; ESR, 0–10.2 (0–15) mm/hr and PSEP, 0–411 (0–300) pg/mL. Measurement sizes ≥2,500 showed stable results. An abnormal-to-normal value ratio of 0.5 showed the most accurate result for CRP. Adjustment values ≤5 or >5 were applicable for a measurement size

Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Journal Information January, 2024
Vol.44 No.1
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