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  • Letter to the Editor2019-01-28 Transfusion Medicine

    Planned Transfusion of D-Positive Blood Components in an Asia Type DEL Patient: Proposed Modification of the Korean National Guidelines for Blood Transfusion

    Sooin Choi, M.D., Sejong Chun, M.D., Ji Young Seo, M.T., Ji-Hyuk Yang, M.D., and Duck Cho , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2019; 39(1): 102-104
  • Original Article2018-11-28 Diagnostic Hematology

    Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals and Patterns of Changes Across Pediatric, Adult, and Geriatric Ages in Korea

    Eun-Hee Nah , M.D., Suyoung Kim, M.S., Seon Cho, M.S., and Han-Ik Cho, M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2018; 38(6): 503-511

    Abstract : Background Sampling a healthy reference population to generate reference intervals (RIs) for complete blood count (CBC) parameters is not common for pediatric and geriatric ages. We established age- and sex-specific RIs for CBC parameters across pediatric, adult, and geriatric ages using secondary data, evaluating patterns of changes in CBC parameters. Methods The reference population comprised 804,623 health examinees (66,611 aged 3?17 years; 564,280 aged 18?59 years; 173,732 aged 60?99 years), and, we excluded 22,766 examinees after outlier testing. The CBC parameters (red blood cell [RBC], white blood cell [WBC], and platelet parameters) from 781,857 examinees were studied. We determined statistically significant partitions of age and sex, and calculated RIs according to the CLSI C28-A3 guidelines. Results RBC parameters increased with age until adulthood and decreased with age in males, but increased before puberty and then decreased with age in females. WBC and platelet counts were the highest in early childhood and decreased with age. Sex differences in each age group were noted: WBC count was higher in males than in females during adulthood, but platelet count was higher in females than in males from puberty onwards (P

  • Original Article2018-07-28 Diagnostic Immunology

    Usefulness of Enhanced Liver Fibrosis, Glycosylation Isomer of Mac-2 Binding Protein, Galectin-3, and Soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 for Assessing Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Liver Diseases

    Hee-Won Moon, M.D., Mikyoung Park, M.D., Mina Hur, M.D., Hanah Kim, M.D., Won Hyeok Choe, M.D., and Yeo-Min Yun, M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2018; 38(4): 331-337

    Abstract : BackgroundLiver biopsies have been partially replaced by noninvasive methods for assessing liver fibrosis. We explored the usefulness of four novel biomarkers, enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF), glycosylation isomer of Mac-2 binding protein (M2BPGi), galectin-3, and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), in association with liver fibrosis.MethodsELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2 were assayed in 173 patients with chronic liver diseases. The results were analyzed according to fibrosis grade (F0/1, F2, and F3/4) by transient elastography (TE).ResultsELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2 values differed significantly according to TE grade; ELF and M2BPGi values were higher in F2 and F3/4 than in F0/1 (P≤0.001, all), sST2 values were higher in F3/4 than in F0/1 and F2 (P<0.05), and galectin-3 values were higher in F3/4 than in F0/1 (P=0.0036). ELF and M2BPGi showed good TE fibrosis detection performance (area under the curves [AUC], 0.841 and 0.833 for ≥F2; and 0.837 and 0.808 for ≥F3). The sensitivity and specificity for predicting TE grade F≥2 were 84.1% and 76.7% for ELF and 63.6% and 91.5% for M2BPGi.ConclusionsThis is the first study to compare the liver fibrosis assessment of four novel biomarkers: ELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2. The biomarkers varied significantly according to TE grade, and each biomarker showed a different trend. ELF and M2BPGi seem to have comparable good performance for detecting liver fibrosis.

  • Original Article2018-05-28 Clinical Chemistry

    Prognostic Role of High-sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I and Soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity-2 in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients Undergoing Non-cardiac Surgery

    Hyun Suk Yang, M.D., Mina Hur, M.D., Ahram Yi, M.D., Hanah Kim, M.D., and Jayoun Kim, Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2018; 38(3): 204-211

    Abstract : BackgroundThe prognostic utility of cardiac biomarkers, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 (sST2), in non-cardiac surgery is not well-defined. We evaluated hs-cTnI and sST2 as predictors of 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) following major non-cardiac surgery.Methodshs-cTnI and sST2 concentrations were measured in 175 SICU patients immediately following surgery and for three days postoperatively. The results were analyzed in relation to 30-day MACE and were compared with the revised Goldman cardiac risk index (RCRI) score.ResultsOverall, 30-day MACE was observed in 16 (9.1%) patients. hs-cTnI and sST2 concentrations differed significantly between the two groups with and without 30-day MACE (P<0.05). The maximum concentration of sST2 was an independent predictor of 30-day MACE (odds ratio=1.016, P=0.008). The optimal cut-off values of hs-cTnI and sST2 for predicting 30-day MACE were 53.0 ng/L and 182.5 ng/mL, respectively. A combination of hs-cTnI and sST2 predicted 30-day MACE better than the RCRI score. Moreover, 30-day MACE was observed more frequently with increasing numbers of above-optimal cut-off hs-cTnI and sST2 values (P<0.0001). Reclassification analyses indicated that the addition of biomarkers to RCRI scores improved the prediction of 30-day MACE.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates the utility of hs-cTnI and sST2 in predicting 30-day MACE following non-cardiac surgery. Cardiac biomarkers would provide enhanced risk stratification in addition to clinical RCRI scores for patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery.

  • Original Article2017-09-01 Clinical Chemistry

    Proenkephalin, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin, and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Patients With Sepsis

    Hanah Kim, M.D., Mina Hur, M.D., Seungho Lee, Ph.D., Rossella Marino, M.D., Laura Magrini, M.D., Patrizia Cardelli, M.D., Joachim Struck, Ph.D., Andreas Bergmann, Ph.D., Oliver Hartmann, Ph.D., and Salvatore Di Somma, M.D.; on behalf of the GREAT Network

    Ann Lab Med 2017; 37(5): 388-397

    Abstract : Background: Proenkephalin (PENK) has been suggested as a novel biomarker for kidney function. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic utility of plasma PENK in comparison with neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in septic patients.Methods: A total of 167 septic patients were enrolled: 99 with sepsis, 37 with septic shock, and 31 with suspected sepsis. PENK and NGAL concentrations were measured and GFR was estimated by using the isotope dilution mass spectrometry traceable-Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations: CKD-EPICr, CDK-EPICysC, and CKD-EPICr-CysC. The PENK, NGAL, and eGFR results were compared according to sepsis severity, presence or absence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and clinical outcomes.Results: The PENK, NGAL, and eGFR results were significantly associated with sepsis severity and differed significantly between patients with and without AKI only in the sepsis group (all P<0.05). PENK was superior to NGAL in predicting AKI (P=0.022) and renal replacement therapy (RRT) (P=0.0085). Regardless of the variable GFR category by the different eGFR equations, PENK showed constant and significant associations with all eGFR equations. Unlike NGAL, PENK was not influenced by inflammation and predicted the 30-day mortality.Conclusions: PENK is a highly sensitive and objective biomarker of AKI and RRT and is useful for prognosis prediction in septic patients. With its diagnostic robustness and predictive power for survival, PENK constitutes a promising biomarker in critical care settings including sepsis.

  • Original Article2016-11-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae From Five Hospitals in Korea

    Seok Hoon Jeong, M.D., Han-Sung Kim, M.D., Jae-Seok Kim, M.D., Dong Hoon Shin, M.D., Hyun Soo Kim, M.D., Min-Jeong Park, M.D., Saeam Shin, M.D., Jun Sung Hong, B.S., Seung Soon Lee, M.D., and Wonkeun Song, M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2016; 36(6): 529-535

    Abstract : Background: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem because these bacteria are resistant to most antibiotics. CPE remain relatively uncommon in Korea. We report the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and molecular epidemiology of CPE isolates collected from five university hospitals in Korea. Methods: Between January and December 2015, 393 non-duplicated isolates that were nonsusceptible to ertapenem were analyzed. Production of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase was determined by genotypic tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by using an Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2-producing and oxacillinase (OXA)-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Of the 393 isolates tested, 79 (20.1%) were CPE. Of these 79 isolates, 47 (59.5%) harbored the blaOXA-232 gene while the remaining isolates carried genes blaKPC-2 (n=27), blaIMP-1 (n=4), and blaNDM-1 (n=1). Among the 24 KPC-2 K. pneumoniaeisolates from hospital B, 100% were resistant to carbapenems, 8% to colistin, and 0% to tigecycline. Among the 45 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae at hospital C, 95% were resistant to ertapenem, 68% to imipenem, 95% to meropenem, 10% to colistin, and 24% to tigecycline. PFGE analysis revealed a unique pattern for KPC-2 K. pneumoniae and identified 30 isolates belonging to the dominant pulsotypes (PT)1 and PT2 among 41 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae isolates. Conclusions: CPE strains are present in Korea, with the majority of K. pneumoniae isolates producing OXA-232 and KPC-2. The prevalence and predominant genotypes of CPE show hospital-specific differences.

  • Original Article2016-03-01

    DUOX2 Mutations Are Frequently Associated With Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Korean Population

    Kyoung-Jin Park, M.D., Hyun-Kyung Park, M.D., Young-Jin Kim, M.D., Kyoung-Ryul Lee, M.D., Jong-Ho Park, B.S., June-Hee Park, B.S., Hyung-Doo Park, M.D., Soo-Youn Lee, M.D., and Jong-Won Kim, M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2016; 36(2): 145-153

    Abstract : Background: Most cases with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are usually sporadic, while about 20% of the cases are caused by genetic defects. Little information is available regarding the mutation incidence and genetic heterogeneity of CH in Koreans. We aimed to determine the mutation incidence of CH in newborn screenings (NBS) and to evaluate the frequency and spectrum of mutations underlying CH. Methods: A total of 112 newborns with thyroid dysfunction were enrolled from 256,624 consecutive NBS. Furthermore, 58 outpatients with primary CH were added from an endocrine clinic. All coding exons of TSHR, PAX8, TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, and SCL5A5 were sequenced. Results: The mutation incidence of CH was estimated to be 1 in 6,580 newborns. A total of 36 different mutations were identified in 53 cases. The overall mutation positive rate was 31%. The DUOX2 mutations were the most prevalent in both newborns and outpatients. Seven different recurrent mutations [p.G488R (n=13), p.A649E (n=3), p.R885Q (n=3), p.I1080T (n=2), and p.A1206T (n=2) in DUOX2; p.Y138X (n=9) in DUOXA2; and p.R450H (n=5) in TSHR) were identified as the mutations underlying CH. Conclusions: The mutation incidence of CH was considerably higher than expected in the Korean newborn population. This study revealed seven different recurrent mutations underlying CH. We conclude that DUOX2 mutations are a frequent cause of CH in the Korean population.

  • Original Article2015-09-01

    Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Myanmar

    Wah Wah Aung, Ph.D., Phyu Win Ei, M.Med.Sc., Wint Wint Nyunt, M.Med.Sc., Thyn Lei Swe, M.Med.Sc.,
    Thandar Lwin, M.Phil., Mi Mi Htwe, M.S., Kyung Jun Kim, B.S. Jong Seok Lee, Ph.D., Chang Ki Kim, M.D.,
    Sang Nae Cho, Ph.D., Sun Dae Song, M.D., and Chulhun L. Chang, M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2015; 35(5): 494-499

    Abstract : Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious health problems in Myanmar. Because TB drug resistance is associated with genetic mutation(s) relevant to responses to each drug, genotypic methods for detecting these mutations have been proposed to overcome the limitations of classic phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST). We explored the current estimates of drug-resistant TB and evaluated the usefulness of genotypic DST in Myanmar. Methods: We determined the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from sputum smear-positive patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB at two main TB centers in Myanmar during 2013 by using conventional phenotypic DST and the GenoType MTBDRplus assay (Hain Lifescience, Germany). Discrepant results were confirmed by sequencing the genes relevant to each type of resistance (rpoB for rifampicin; katG and inhA for isoniazid). Results: Of 191 isolates, phenotypic DST showed that 27.7% (n=53) were resistant to at least one first-line drug and 20.9% (n=40) were resistant to two or more, including 18.3% (n=35) multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) strains. Monoresistant strains accounted for 6.8% (n=13) of the samples. Genotypic assay of 189 isolates showed 17.5% (n=33) MDR-TB and 5.3% (n=10) isoniazid-monoresistant strains. Genotypic susceptibility results were 99.5% (n=188) concordant and agreed almost perfectly with phenotypic DST (kappa=0.99; 95% confidence interval 0.96-1.01). Conclusions: The results highlight the burden of TB drug resistance and prove the usefulness of the genotypic DST in Myanmar.

  • Original Article2015-01-01

    Calreticulin Exon 9 Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Jung-Sook Ha, M.D. and Yu-Kyung Kim, M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2015; 35(1): 22-27

    Abstract : Background: Calreticulin (CALR) mutations were recently discovered in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We studied the frequency and type of CALR mutations and their hematological characteristics. Methods: A total of 168 MPN patients (36 polycythemia vera [PV], 114 essential thrombocythemia [ET], and 18 primary myelofibrosis [PMF] cases) were included in the study. CALR mutation was analyzed by the direct sequencing method. Results: CALR mutations were detected in 21.9% of ET and 16.7% of PMF patients, which accounted for 58.5% and 33.3% of ET and PMF patients without Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) or myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogenes (MPL) mutations, respectively. A total of five types of mutation were detected, among which, L367fs*46 (53.6%) and K385fs*47 (35.7%) were found to be the most common. ET patients with CALR mutation had lower leukocyte counts and ages compared with JAK2-mutated ET patients. Conclusion: Genotyping for CALR could be a useful diagnostic tool for JAK2-or (MPL-negative ET or PMF patients. CALR mutation may be a distinct disease group, with different hematological characteristics than that of JAK2-positive patients.

  • Original Article2015-01-01

    Highly Sensitive and Novel Point-of-Care System, aQcare Chlamydia TRF Kit for Detecting Chlamydia trachomatis by Using Europium (Eu) (III) Chelated Nanoparticles

    Ji Yeon Ham, M.D., Jaean Jung, M.S., Byung-Gap Hwang, Ph.D., Won-Jung Kim, Ph.D., Young-Seop Kim, Ph.D., Eun-Ju Kim, M.S., Mi-Yeon Cho, M.S., Mi-Sun Hwang, Ph.D., Dong Il Won, M.D., and Jang Soo Suh, M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2015; 35(1): 50-56

    Abstract : Background: The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the leading causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Since no simple and effective tool exists to diagnose C. trachomatis infections, we evaluated a novel point-of-care (POC) test, aQcare Chlamydia TRF kit, which uses europium-chelated nanoparticles and a time-resolved fluorescence reader. Methods: The test performance was evaluated by comparing the results obtained using the novel POC testing kit with those obtained using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), using 114 NAAT-positive and 327 NAAT-negative samples. Results: The cut-off value of the novel test was 20.8 with a detection limit of 0.27 ng/mL. No interference or cross-reactivity was observed. Diagnostic accuracy showed an overall sensitivity of 93.0% (106/114), specificity of 96.3% (315/327), positive predictive value (PPV) of 89.8% (106/118), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.5% (315/323). The sensitivity of the novel test was much higher than that of currently available POC tests. Furthermore, the relative ease and short turnaround time (30 min) of this assay enables C. trachomatis-infected individuals to be treated without a diagnostic delay. Conclusions: This simple and novel test is a potential tool to screen a larger population, especially those in areas with limited resources.

Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Journal Information July, 2024
Vol.44 No.4
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