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  • Original Article2022-01-01 Diagnostic Immunology

    Comparison of the Automated Fluorescent Immunoassay System With Roche Elecsys and Beckman Coulter Access 2 Assays for Anti-Müllerian Hormone Measurement

    Aera Han , M.D., Ph.D., Borum Suh , M.D., Gwang Yi , M.D., Yoo Jin Lee , M.D., and Sung Eun Kim , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(1): 47-53

    Abstract : Background: Since 2017, automated assays have been used in most clinical laboratories for anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level measurement. We evaluated the analytical performance of the newly developed automated fluorescent immunoassay system (AFIAS) AMH assay (Boditech Med, Gangwon-do, Korea) in comparison with the Roche Elecsys and Beckman Coulter Access 2 AMH assays. Methods: Analytical performance of the AFIAS AMH assay was assessed in terms of linearity, repeatability, and within-laboratory precision (CV%) using human recombinant AMH samples according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines EP05 and EP06. Using 293 serum samples collected from an infertility clinic, the AMH levels were compared across AFIAS, Elecsys, and Access 2 AMH assays according to the CLSI EP09 guidelines. Results: The AFIAS AMH assay results were linear across the measurement range of 0.420–72.386 pmol/L AMH, with repeatability of 6.341%. CV% of the AFIAS AMH assay for three levels of control, 1.786, 7.143, and 56.857 pmol/L, were 5.801%, 5.714%, and 6.228%, respectively. The results of the three AMH assays showed strong correlation: AFIAS and Elecsys [slope, 1.055 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.022–1.088) and Spearman’s rho, 0.978 (95% CI, 0.973–0.983)], Elecsys and Access 2 [slope, 0.813 (95% CI, 0.791–0.834) and Spearman’s rho, 0.986 (95% CI, 0.983–0.989)], and AFIAS and Access 2 [slope, 0.836 (95% CI, 0.821–0.853) and Spearman’s rho, 0.984 (95% CI, 0.980–0.988)]. Conclusions: The AFIAS AMH assay may be an alternative to the Roche Elecsys and Beckman Coulter Access 2 AMH assays.

  • Original Article2022-01-01 Diagnostic Immunology

    Association of HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 Alleles with Susceptibility to IgA Nephropathy in Korean Patients

    Ji Won In , M.D., Kiwook Jung , M.D., Sue Shin , M.D., Ph.D., Kyoung Un Park , M.D., Ph.D., Hajeong Lee , M.D., Ph.D., and Eun Young Song , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(1): 54-62

    Abstract : Background: Associations between IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles have been reported in several ethnic groups. We investigated the association of HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles with the predisposition for IgAN and disease progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in Korean patients. Methods: We analyzed HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 genotypes in 399 IgAN patients between January 2000 and January 2019 using a LIFECODES sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) typing kit (Immucor, Stamford, CT, USA) or a LABType SSO Typing Test (One Lambda, Canoga Park, CA, USA). Alleles with a significant difference in two-digit resolution were further analyzed using in-house sequence-based typing and sequence-specific primer PCR. As controls, 613 healthy hematopoietic stem cell donors were included. Kidney survival was analyzed in 281 IgAN patients with available clinical and laboratory data using Cox regression analysis. Where needed, P-values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction. Results: The allele frequencies of HLA-DRB1*04:05 (corrected P [Pc]

  • Original Article2023-01-01 Clinical Chemistry

    Intuitive Modification of the Friedewald Formula for Calculation of LDL-Cholesterol

    Jinyoung Hong , M.D., Hyunjung Gu , M.D., Juhee Lee , M.T., Woochang Lee , M.D., Sail Chun , M.D., Ki Hoon Han , M.D., and Won-Ki Min , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2023; 43(1): 29-37

    Abstract : Background: High LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is considered an important therapeutic target. It can be measured directly or calculated from the results of other lipid tests. The Friedewald formula is the most widely used formula for calculating LDL-C. We modified the Friedewald formula for a more accurate and practical estimation of LDL-C. Methods: Datasets, including measured triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-C concentrations were collected and assigned to derivation and validation sets. The datasets were further divided into five groups based on triglyceride concentrations. In the modified formula, LDL-C was defined as total cholesterol − HDL-cholesterol − (triglyceride/adjustment factor). For each group, the adjustment factor that minimized the difference between measured LDL-C and calculated LDL-C using modified formula was obtained. For validation, measured LDL-C and LDL-C calculated using the modified formula (LDL-CM), Friedewald formula (LDL-CF), Martin-Hopkins formula (LDL-CMa), and Sampson formula (LDL-CS) were compared. Results: In the derivation set, the adjustment factors were 4.7, 5.9, 6.3, and 6.4 for the groups with triglyceride concentrations 300 mg/dL, respectively. In the validation set, the coefficient of determination (R2) between measured and calculated LDL-C was higher for LDL-CM than for LDL-CF (R2=0.9330 vs. 0.9206). The agreement according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III classification of LDL-C was 86.36%, 86.08%, 86.82%, and 86.15% for LDL-CM, LDL-CF, LDL-CMa, and LDL-CS, respectively. Conclusions: We proposed a practical, improved LDL-C calculation formula by applying different factors depending on the triglyceride concentration.

  • Letter to the Editor2022-01-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Rates of Coinfection Between SARS-CoV-2 and Other Respiratory Viruses in Korea

    Young-gon Kim , M.D., Hyunwoong Park , M.D., Ph.D., So Yeon Kim , M.D., Ph.D., Ki Ho Hong , M.D., Ph.D., Man Jin Kim , M.D., Jee-Soo Lee , M.D., Sung-Sup Park , M.D., Ph.D., and Moon-Woo Seong , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(1): 110-112
  • Original Article2022-01-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Genotypic Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Rectal and Clinical Samples in Korean University Hospitals Between 2016 and 2019

    Seri Jeong , M.D., Nuri Lee , M.D., Min-Jeong Park , M.D., Kibum Jeon , M.D., Han-Sung Kim , M.D., Hyun Soo Kim , M.D., Jae-Seok Kim , M.D., and Wonkeun Song , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(1): 36-46

    Abstract : Background: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem. Recently, the occurrence of CPE has increased globally, but epidemiological patterns vary across region. We report the trends in the genotypic distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of CPE isolated from rectal and clinical samples during a four-year period. Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2019, 1,254 nonduplicated CPE isolates were obtained from four university hospitals in Korea. Carbapenemase genotypes were determined by multiplex real-time PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was profiled using the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, Hazelwood, MO, USA) or MicroScan Walkaway-96 system (Siemens West Sacramento, CA, USA). The proportions of carbapenemase genotypes and nonsusceptibility were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: Among the 1,254 CPE isolates, 486 (38.8%), 371 (29.6%), 357 (28.5%), 8 (0.6%), 8 (0.6%), and 24 (1.9%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), oxacillinase (OXA)-48-like, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), imipenemase (IMP), Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM), and multiple producers, respectively. The predominant species was K. pneumoniae (72.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (6.5%). More than 90% of the isolates harboring KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems. Conclusions: The impact of CPE is primarily due to KPC-, NDM-, and OXA-48-like-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. Isolates carrying these carbapenemase are mostly multidrug-resistant. Control strategies based on these genotypic distributions and antimicrobial susceptibilities of CPE isolates are required.

  • Original Article2022-07-01 Diagnostic Hematology

    Digital Morphology Analyzer Sysmex DI-60 vs. Manual Counting for White Blood Cell Differentials in Leukopenic Samples: A Comparative Assessment of Risk and Turnaround Time

    Minjeong Nam , M.D., Ph.D., Sumi Yoon , M.D., Mina Hur , M.D., Ph.D., Gun Hyuk Lee , M.D., Hanah Kim , M.D., Ph.D., Mikyoung Park , M.D., Ph.D., and Hyeong Nyeon Kim , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 398-405

    Abstract : Background: Digital morphology (DM) analyzers are increasingly being used for white blood cell (WBC) differentials. We assessed the laboratory efficiency of the Sysmex DI-60 system (DI-60; Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) in comparison with manual counting in leukopenic samples. Methods: In total, 40 peripheral blood smear samples were divided into normal, mild leukopenia, moderate leukopenia, and severe leukopenia groups based on WBC count. In each group, the risk and turnaround time (TAT) were compared between DI-60 and manual counting. Risk was determined by failure mode and effect analysis using the risk priority number (RPN) score, and TAT was recorded for the analytical phase. Results: Overall, DI-60 showed a five-fold lower risk (70 vs. 350 RPN) and longer TAT than manual counting. In severe leukopenic samples, DI-60 showed a shorter TAT/slide and a remarkably lower cell count/slide than manual counting. In all samples, the TAT/cell for DI-60 was substantially longer than that for manual counting (DI-60 vs. manual: total, 1.8 vs. 1.0 sec; normal, 1.5 vs. 0.7 sec; mild leukopenia, 1.9 vs. 0.9 sec; moderate leukopenia, 1.8 vs. 1.0 sec; severe leukopenia, 28.8 vs. 19.0 sec). Conclusions: This is the first comparative assessment of risk and TAT between DI-60 and manual counting in leukopenic samples. DI-60 decreases the laboratory risk and improves patient safety, but requires more time to count fewer cells, especially in severe leukopenic samples. DM analyzers should be applied selectively depending on the WBC count to optimize laboratory efficiency.

  • Original Article2022-01-01 Diagnostic Genetics

    Clinical Utility of Methylation-Specific Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification for the Diagnosis of Prader–Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome

    Boram Kim , M.D., Yongsook Park , M.T., Sung Im Cho , M.T., Man Jin Kim , M.D., Jong-Hee Chae , M.D., Ph.D., Ji Yeon Kim , M.D., Ph.D., Moon-Woo Seong , M.D., Ph.D., and Sung Sup Park , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(1): 79-88

    Abstract : Background: Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are genomic imprinting disorders that are mainly caused by a deletion on 15q11-q13, the uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, or an imprinting defect. We evaluated the utility of methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) as a diagnostic tool and for demonstrating the relationship between molecular mechanisms and clinical presentation. Methods: We performed MS-MLPA using DNA samples from 93 subjects (45 PWS, 24 AS, and 24 non-PWS/AS controls) who had previously undergone MS-PCR for the diagnosis of PWS/AS. We compared the results of both assays, and patients’ clinical phenotypes were reviewed retrospectively. Results: MS-MLPA showed a 100% concordance rate with MS-PCR. Among the 45 PWS patients, 26 (57.8%) had a deletion of 15q11-q13, and the others (42.2%) had uniparental disomy 15 or an imprinting defect. Among the 24 AS patients, 16 (66.7%) had a deletion of 15q11-q13, 7 AS patients (29.2%) had uniparental disomy 15 or an imprinting defect, and one AS patient (4.2%) showed an imprinting center deletion. Conclusions: MS-MLPA has clinical utility for the diagnosis of PWS/AS, and it is superior to MS-PCR in that it can identify the molecular mechanism underlying the disease.

  • Original Article2022-07-01 Diagnostic Immunology

    Performance Evaluation of the Aptima Assays in Comparison with the cobas 6800 Assays for the Detection of HIV-1, HBV, and HCV in Clinical Samples

    Younhee Park , M.D., Ph.D., Juhye Roh , M.D., Ph.D., and Sinyoung Kim , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 447-456

    Abstract : Background: Accurate and consistent viral load (VL) quantitation of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is important for diagnosis and clinical monitoring. Assay results have to be concordant and compatible across laboratories. We evaluated the performance of three Aptima assays (Hologic, San Diego, CA, USA) and compared their VL values with corresponding cobas 6800 assay (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) results, using 840 clinical samples. Methods: The correlation between VL results obtained using the two assays was evaluated in terms of analytical sensitivity, precision/reproducibility, linearity, and cross-reactivity. Agreement rates were determined using kappa statistics. The overall agreement of VL values was examined using Passing–Bablok regression analysis. Results: All CVs were within 5%; the assays had good precision for detecting all three viruses. The linearity of quantitation assessed using three AccuSpan linearity panels (Seracare, Milford, MA, USA), was excellent for the Aptima assays. For HIV-1 and HCV, the results of both assays showed excellent agreement (κ=0.89 and 0.90, respectively) while for HBV, the results showed good agreement (κ=0.69). For analytical sensitivity, the VLs required for a 100% detection rate of HIV-1, HBV, and HCV were 20 copies/mL, 7.5 IU/mL, and 5.0 IU/mL, respectively. The results for HIV-1, HBV, and HCV obtained using both assays correlated strongly (R2=0.97, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively). Conclusions: The cobas 6800 and Aptima assays, with fully automated and high-throughput molecular platforms for HIV-1, HBV, and HCV VL measurements, show good analytical performance and a strong correlation between results. The study results suggest that the assays can be used interchangeably for long-term monitoring of chronic infections.

  • Brief Communication2022-07-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Performance Evaluation of the PowerChek SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A & B Multiplex Real-Time PCR Kit in Comparison with the BioFire Respiratory Panel

    Tae Yeul Kim , M.D., Ji-Youn Kim , M.T., Hyang Jin Shim , M.T., Sun Ae Yun , M.T., Ja-Hyun Jang , M.D., Hee Jae Huh , M.D., Jong-Won Kim , M.D., and Nam Yong Lee , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 473-477

    Abstract : Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses may pose enormous challenges to our healthcare system. We evaluated the performance of the PowerChek SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A & B Multiplex Real-time PCR Kit (PowerChek; Kogene Biotech, Seoul, Korea) in comparison with the BioFire Respiratory Panels 2 and 2.1 (RP2 and RP2.1; bioMérieux, Marcy l’Étoile, France), using 147 nasopharyngeal swabs. The limit of detection (LOD) of the PowerChek assay was determined using SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, and B RNA standards. The LOD values of the PowerChek assay for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A and B were 1.12, 1.24, and 0.61 copies/μL, respectively. The positive and negative percent agreements of the PowerChek assay compared with RP2 and RP2.1 were 97.5% (39/40) and 100% (107/107) for SARS-CoV-2; 100% (39/39) and 100% (108/108) for influenza A; and 100% (35/35) and 100% (112/112) for influenza B, respectively. The performance of the PowerChek assay was comparable to that of RP2 and RP2.1 for detecting SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A and B, suggesting its use in diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infections.

  • Original Article2022-07-01 Clinical Chemistry

    Sex-Specific U-Shaped Relationships Between High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and 10-year Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events: A Nationwide Cohort Study of 5.7 Million South Koreans

    Hyun Suk Yang , M.D., Ph.D., Ho Jin Jeong , M.S., Hyeongsu Kim , M.D., Ph.D., Hweung Kon Hwang , M.D., Ph.D., Mina Hur , M.D., Ph.D., and Seungho Lee , Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 415-427

    Abstract : Background: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a well-known predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). We explored the relationships between HDL-C levels and 10-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and provided sex-specific upper reference limits for HDL-C levels. Methods: Based on the Korean National Health Insurance Sharing Service, we identified 5,703,897 subjects (women, 48%) with age ≥40 years, eligible HDL-C results, and no prior ASCVD in 2009. We investigated the distribution of 10-year MACE according to HDL-C levels in 10 mg/dL (0.26 mmol/L) intervals and in three HDL-C groups (low: men

Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Journal Information March, 2024
Vol.44 No.2
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