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  • Guideline2022-07-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Update of Guidelines for Laboratory Diagnosis of COVID-19 in Korea

    Ki Ho Hong , M.D., Gab Jung Kim , Ph.D., Kyoung Ho Roh , M.D., Heungsup Sung , M.D., Jaehyeon Lee , M.D., So Yeon Kim , M.D., Taek Soo Kim , M.D., Jae-Sun Park , Ph.D., Hee Jae Huh , M.D., Younhee Park , M.D., Jae-Seok Kim , M.D., Hyun Soo Kim , M.D., Moon-Woo Seong , M.D., Nam Hee Ryoo , M.D., Sang Hoon Song , M.D., Hyukmin Lee , M.D., Gye Cheol Kwon , M.D., and Cheon Kwon Yoo , Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 391-397

    Abstract : Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine and the Korea Disease Prevention and Control Agency have announced guidelines for diagnosing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in clinical laboratories in Korea. With the ongoing pandemic, we propose an update of the previous guidelines based on new scientific data. This update includes recommendations for tests that were not included in the previous guidelines, including the rapid molecular test, antigen test, antibody test, and self-collected specimens, and a revision of the previous recommendations. This update will aid clinical laboratories in performing laboratory tests for diagnosing COVID-19.

  • Original Article2023-01-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Korea Between 2017 and 2019 After Introduction of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    Gyu Ri Kim , Ph.D., Eun-Young Kim , Ph.D., Si Hyun Kim , Ph.D., Hae Kyung Lee , M.D., Jaehyeon Lee , M.D., Jong Hee Shin , M.D., Young Ree Kim , M.D., Sae Am Song , M.D., Joseph Jeong , M.D., Young Uh , M.D., Yu Kyung Kim , M.D., Dongeun Yong , M.D., Hyun Soo Kim , M.D., Sunjoo Kim , M.D., Young Ah Kim , M.D., Kyeong Seob Shin , M.D., Seok Hoon Jeong , M.D., Namhee Ryoo , M.D., and Jeong Hwan Shin , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2023; 43(1): 45-54

    Abstract : Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious pathogen causing various infections in humans. We evaluated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)13 in Korea and investigated the epidemiological characteristics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Methods: S. pneumoniae isolates causing IPD were collected from 16 hospitals in Korea between 2017 and 2019. Serotyping was performed using modified sequential multiplex PCR and the Quellung reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on MDR isolates for epidemiological investigations. Results: Among the 411 S. pneumoniae isolates analyzed, the most prevalent serotype was 3 (12.2%), followed by 10A (9.5%), 34 (7.3%), 19A (6.8%), 23A (6.3%), 22F (6.1%), 35B (5.8%), 11A (5.1%), and others (40.9%). The coverage rates of PCV7, PCV10, PCV13, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)23 were 7.8%, 7.8%, 28.7%, and 59.4%, respectively. Resistance rates to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and levofloxacin were 13.1%, 9.2%, 80.3%, and 4.1%, respectively. MDR isolates accounted for 23.4% of all isolates. Serotypes 23A, 11A, 19A, and 15B accounted for the highest proportions of total isolates at 18.8%, 16.7%, 14.6%, and 8.3%, respectively. Sequence type (ST)166 (43.8%) and ST320 (12.5%) were common among MDR isolates. Conclusions: Non-PCV13 serotypes are increasing among invasive S. pneumoniae strains causing IPD. Differences in antimicrobial resistance were found according to the specific serotype. Continuous monitoring of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance is necessary for the appropriate management of S. pneumoniae infections.

  • Guideline2022-09-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Guidelines for Mobile Laboratories for Molecular Diagnostic Testing of COVID-19

    Kyoung Ho Roh , M.D., Ki Ho Hong , M.D., Myung-Hyun Nam , M.D., Taek Soo Kim , M.D., Moon-Woo Seong , M.D., Jin Kyung Lee , M.D., Sookyoung Bae , M.D., Hee Jae Huh , M.D., Jeong-Yeal Ahn , M.D., Jinsook Lim , M.D., Gab Jung Kim , Ph.D., Jae Sun Park , Ph.D., Hyun Yeong Kim , Ph.D., Cheon Kwon Yoo , Ph.D., and Hyukmin Lee , M.D. on behalf of Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine, COVID-19 Task Force, and the Bureau of Infectious Disease Diagnosis Control, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(5): 507-514

    Abstract : With the rapid spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the need for rapid testing and diagnosis and consequently, the demand for mobile laboratories have increased. Despite this need, there are no clear guidelines for the operation, maintenance, or quality control of mobile laboratories. We provide guidelines for the operation, management, and quality control of mobile laboratories, and specifically for the implementation and execution of COVID-19 molecular diagnostic testing. These practical guidelines are primarily based on expert opinions and a laboratory accreditation inspection checklist. The scope of these guidelines includes the facility, preoperative evaluation, PCR testing, internal and external quality control, sample handling, reporting, laboratory personnel, biosafety level, and laboratory safety management. These guidelines are useful for the maintenance and operation of mobile laboratories not only in normal circumstances but also during public health crises and emergencies.

  • Brief Communication2022-07-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Performance Evaluation of the PowerChek SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A & B Multiplex Real-Time PCR Kit in Comparison with the BioFire Respiratory Panel

    Tae Yeul Kim , M.D., Ji-Youn Kim , M.T., Hyang Jin Shim , M.T., Sun Ae Yun , M.T., Ja-Hyun Jang , M.D., Hee Jae Huh , M.D., Jong-Won Kim , M.D., and Nam Yong Lee , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 473-477

    Abstract : Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses may pose enormous challenges to our healthcare system. We evaluated the performance of the PowerChek SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A & B Multiplex Real-time PCR Kit (PowerChek; Kogene Biotech, Seoul, Korea) in comparison with the BioFire Respiratory Panels 2 and 2.1 (RP2 and RP2.1; bioMérieux, Marcy l’Étoile, France), using 147 nasopharyngeal swabs. The limit of detection (LOD) of the PowerChek assay was determined using SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, and B RNA standards. The LOD values of the PowerChek assay for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A and B were 1.12, 1.24, and 0.61 copies/μL, respectively. The positive and negative percent agreements of the PowerChek assay compared with RP2 and RP2.1 were 97.5% (39/40) and 100% (107/107) for SARS-CoV-2; 100% (39/39) and 100% (108/108) for influenza A; and 100% (35/35) and 100% (112/112) for influenza B, respectively. The performance of the PowerChek assay was comparable to that of RP2 and RP2.1 for detecting SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A and B, suggesting its use in diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infections.

  • Guideline2023-03-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Guidelines for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Monkeypox in Korea

    Ki Ho Hong , M.D., Gab Jung Kim , Ph.D., Kyoung Ho Roh , M.D., Hyukmin Lee , M.D., Ok Kyu Park , M.S., Taek Soo Kim , M.D., Jae-Seok Kim , M.D., Jaehyeon Lee , M.D., Moon-Woo Seong , M.D., So Yeon Kim , M.D., Jae-Sun Park , Ph.D., Younhee Park , M.D., Hee Jae Huh , M.D., Namhee Ryoo , M.D., Hyun Soo Kim , M.D., Heungsup Sung , M.D., and Cheon Kwon Yoo , Ph.D.; On behalf of the Committee of Management of Laboratory Tests for Infectious Diseases, Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine, and the Bureau of Infectious Disease Diagnosis Control, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency

    Ann Lab Med 2023; 43(2): 137-144

    Abstract : While the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is ongoing, monkeypox has been rapidly spreading in non-endemic countries since May 2022. Accurate and rapid laboratory tests are essential for identifying and controlling monkeypox. Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine and the Korea Disease Prevention and Control Agency have proposed guidelines for diagnosing monkeypox in clinical laboratories in Korea. These guidelines cover the type of tests, selection of specimens, collection of specimens, diagnostic methods, interpretation of test results, and biosafety. Molecular tests are recommended as confirmatory tests. Skin lesion specimens are recommended for testing in the symptomatic stage, and the collection of both blood and oropharyngeal swabs is recommended in the presymptomatic or prodromal stage.

  • Letter to the Editor2022-07-01 Clinical Microbiology

    The First Case of Azorhizobium caulinodans Bacteremia in a Patient with Leukemia

    Jae Hyeon Park , M.D., Taek Soo Kim , M.D., and Hyunwoong Park , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 494-496
  • Brief Communication2022-05-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Substantial Improvement in Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Identification Using ASTA MicroIDSys Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with an Upgraded Database

    Junhyup Song , M.D., Shinyoung Yoon , M.D., Yongha In , Ph.D., Daewon Kim , M.D., Hyukmin Lee , M.D., Dongeun Yong , M.D., Ph.D., and Kyoungwon Lee , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(3): 358-362

    Abstract : Identifying Mycobacterium using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is challenging. We evaluated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) using the ASTA MicroIDSys system (ASTA Inc., Suwon, Korea) with the MycoDB v1.95s and upgraded MycoDB v2.0-beta databases. We tested 124 NTM isolates collected from Ogawa medium at Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea, between January and April 2019. MicroIDSys scores were categorized into three groups: ≥140, reliable identification; 130–139, ambiguous identification; and

  • Original Article2022-07-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Comparing Genomic Characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes Associated with Invasiveness over a 20-year Period in Korea

    Hyoshim Shin , M.D., Takashi Takahashi , M.D., Ph.D., Seungjun Lee , M.D., Eun Hwa Choi , M.D., Ph.D., Takahiro Maeda , B.P., Yasuto Fukushima , B.P., and Sunjoo Kim , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(4): 438-446

    Abstract : Background: Few studies have investigated the invasiveness of Streptococcus pyogenes based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Using WGS, we determined the genomic features associated with invasiveness of S. pyogenes strains in Korea. Methods: Forty-five S. pyogenes strains from 1997, 2006, and 2017, including common emm types, were selected from the repository at Gyeongsang National University Hospital in Korea. In addition, 48 S. pyogenes strains were randomly selected depending on their invasiveness between 1997 and 2017 to evaluate the genetic evolution and the associations between invasiveness and genetic profiles. Using WGS datasets, we conducted virulence-associated DNA sequence determination, emm genotyping, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and superantigen gene profiling. Results: In total, 87 strains were included in this study. There were no significant differences in the genomic features throughout the study periods. Four genes, csn1, ispE, nisK, and citC, were detected only in invasive strains. There was a significant association between invasiveness and emm cluster type A-C3, including, emm1.0, emm1.18, emm1.3, and emm1.76 (P

  • Original Article2024-01-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Changing Genotypic Distribution, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Risk Factors of Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Carbapenemase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Seri Jeong , M.D., Kibum Jeon , M.D., Nuri Lee , M.D., Min-Jeong Park , M.D., and Wonkeun Song , M.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2024; 44(1): 38-46

    Abstract : Background: Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CrPA) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Carbapenemase production is an important mechanism that significantly alters the efficacy of frequently used anti-pseudomonal agents. Reporting the current genotypic distribution of carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa (CPPA) isolates in relation to antimicrobial susceptibility, UTI risk factors, and mortality is necessary to increase the awareness and control of these strains. Methods: In total, 1,652 non-duplicated P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from hospitalized patients between 2015 and 2020. Antimicrobial susceptibility, carbapenemase genotypes, risk factors for UTI, and associated mortality were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of carbapenem-non-susceptible P. aeruginosa isolates showed a decreasing trend from 2015 to 2018 and then increased in the background of the emergence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-type isolates since 2019. The CPPA strains showed 100.0% non-susceptibility to all tested antibiotics, except aztreonam (94.5%) and colistin (5.9%). Carbapenems were identified as a risk and common predisposing factor for UTI (odds ratio [OR]=1.943) and mortality (OR=2.766). Intensive care unit (ICU) stay (OR=2.677) and white blood cell (WBC) count (OR=1.070) were independently associated with mortality. Conclusions: The changing trend and genetic distribution of CPPA isolates emphasize the need for relentless monitoring to control further dissemination. The use of carbapenems, ICU stay, and WBC count should be considered risk factors, and aggressive antibiotic stewardship programs and monitoring may serve to prevent worse outcomes.

  • Letter to the Editor2022-05-01 Clinical Microbiology

    Incidence Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 Variants in the Ulsan Area, Korea, Using PowerChek SARS-CoV-2 S-gene Mutation Detection Kit: A Pilot Study

    Sang Hyuk Park , M.D., Ph.D., Hyun-Ki Kim , M.D., Hang Kang , Ph.D., Jung Heon Kim , Ph.D., Jaeseung Lee , M.S., Ji-Hun Lim , M.D., Ph.D., Seon-Ho Lee , M.D., Ph.D., and Joseph Jeong , M.D., Ph.D.

    Ann Lab Med 2022; 42(3): 363-366
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Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Journal Information July, 2024
Vol.44 No.4
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