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Table. 2.

Table. 2.

Non-specific prognostic biomarkers of COVID-19

Pathway Biomarkers
Hematological Elevated WBC count
Elevated neutrophil count
Decreased lymphocyte count
Elevated neutrophils-to-lymphocyte ratio
Elevated monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio
Elevated platelet volume
Elevated monocyte distribution width
Elevated red cell distribution width
Inflammation Elevated serum amyloid A
Elevated ESR
Elevated ferritin
Decreased sphingosine‐1‐phosphate
Elevated IL-2
Elevated IL-8
Elevated IL-10
Coagulation Elevated fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products
Necrosis Elevated lactate dehydrogenase
Cardiac injury Elevated cTn
Elevated NT-pro-BNP
Elevated D-dimer
Elevated homocysteine
Liver injury Elevated ALT
Elevated AST
Elevated gamma-GT
Elevated total bilirubin
Kidney injury Elevated creatinine
Elevated blood urea nitrogen
Proteinuria
Muscular injury Elevated CK
Elevated myoglobin
Organ failure Elevated MR-pro-ADM

Abbreviations: CK, creatine kinase; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; cTn, cardiac troponin; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; IL, interleukin; MR-pro-ADM, mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin; GT, glutamate transferase; NT-pro-BNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; WBC, white blood cell.

Ann Lab Med 2021;41:540~548 https://doi.org/10.3343/alm.2021.41.6.540

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