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Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3. Mechanisms of Ab interference in immunoassays. (A) In sandwich immunoassays, the Ab can (1) cross-link the capture and detection Abs (false positive), and (2, 3) prevent the formation of the Ab–Ag–Ab complex by blocking the Abs or the analyte (false negative). (B) In competitive immunoassays, the Ab can block the capture Ab or the analyte giving false high results.
Abbreviations: Ab, antibody; Ag, antigen.

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