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Fig. 4.

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Fig. 4. Effect of bias on population values inside and outside the reference interval. Given the geometric shape of the normal distribution curve, an increase in bias results in an exponential shift of the population from within the reference intervals to beyond them. (A) When bias=0, 5% of the population is situated outside the reference intervals. (B) When bias >0, the proportion of the population located outside the reference intervals exceeds 5%.

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