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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Patient characteristics

Characteristic All patients (N=1,759) No AKI (N=1,031) AKI (N=728) P
Age, yrs 63 (51–75) 60 (48–71) 68 (56–77) <0.001
Male 1,136 (64.6) 637 (61.8) 499 (68.5) 0.004
BMI, kg/m2 26.5 (23.2–30.5) 25.4 (22.5–29.3) 27.5 (24.4–31.9) <0.001
Underlying diseases
Chronic heart failure 129 (7.3) 51 (4.9) 78 (10.7) <0.001
Diabetes mellitus 321 (18.3) 141 (13.7) 180 (24.8) <0.001
Hypertension 773 (44.0) 373 (36.2) 400 (55.0) <0.001
Myocardial infarction 65 (3.7) 38 (3.7) 27 (3.7) >0.900
Dyslipidemia 350 (19.9) 179 (17.4) 171 (23.6) 0.002
Obesity 180 (10.2) 85 (8.2) 95 (13.1) 0.001
Coronary artery disease 155 (8.8) 59 (5.7) 96 (13.2) <0.001
Atrial fibrillation/flutter 192 (10.9) 95 (9.2) 97 (13.4) 0.008
Chronic kidney disease 173 (9.8) 43 (4.2) 130 (17.9) <0.001
Diagnosis on admission
Respiratory disorders 502 (28.5) 291 (28.2) 211 (29.1) 0.742
Sepsis 204 (11.6) 85 (8.2) 119 (16.4) <0.001
Post-major non-cardiac surgery 184 (10.5) 104 (10.1) 80 (11.0) 0.583
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest 120 (6.8) 68 (6.6) 52 (7.2) 0.713
Acute heart failure 44 (2.5) 15 (1.5) 29 (4.0) 0.001
Post-cardiac surgery 43 (2.4) 20 (1.9) 23 (3.2) 0.138
Clinical presentation
SOFA score 7 (4–10) 6 (3–8) 9 (7–12) <0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 122 (108–139) 124 (110–141) 120 (106–136) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 61 (53–70) 63 (55–73) 58 (50–67) <0.001
Mean blood pressure, mmHg 81 (72–92) 83 (74–94) 79 (71–88) <0.001
Heart rate, beats/min 92 (78–106) 91 (77–105) 92 (79–110) 0.061
Temperature, °C 37.3 (36.8–37.8) 37.3 (36.8–37.9) 37.2 (36.7–37.8) <0.001
SpO2, % 98 (96–100) 98 (96–100) 98 (96–100) 0.001
LVEF, % 45 (35–58) 43 (34–56) 45 (39–60) 0.419
Biology at inclusion
Hb, g/dL 10.0 (8.9–11.4) 10.1 (9.0–11.6) 9.8 (8.9–11.2) 0.008
White blood count, /mm3 10,900 (7,523–16,000) 10,300 (7,415–14,833) 11,720 (7,978–17,883) <0.001
Platelets, /µL 166,000 (103,000–246,000) 182,000 (121,000–260,000) 133,000 (81,000–222,000) <0.001
BNP, pg/mL 243 (77–991) 170 (55–576) 590 (139–1,658) <0.001
NT-proBNP, pg/mL 2,136 (778–5,154) 2,840 (875–5,138) 2,086 (744–5,154) 0.834
Urea, mmol/L 8.5 (5.3–14.0) 6.8 (4.5–9.9) 12.9 (8.0–18.9) <0.001
Sodium, mmol/L 140 (137–144) 140 (137–143) 141 (137–144) 0.010
Potassium, mmol/L 3.9 (3.6–4.2) 3.8 (3.5–4.2) 4.0 (3.6–4.4) <0.001
Creatinine, µmol/L 82 (58–145) 67 (53–86) 154 (99–226) <0.001
Lactate, mmol/L 1.3 (1.0–1.9) 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.5 (1.1–2.3) <0.001
Diuresis of 24 hrs, mL 1,400 (825–2,200) 1,565 (1,084–2,395) 1,000 (500–1,848) <0.001
Therapeutics
Inotropes or vasopressors 1,351 (76.8) 716 (69.4) 635 (87.2) <0.001
Mechanical ventilation 1,647 (93.6) 970 (94.1) 677 (93.0) 0.411
Outcomes
28-day mortality 356 (20.3) 105 (10.2) 251 (34.6) <0.001
1-yr mortality 647 (37.9) 270 (27.1) 377 (53.2) <0.001
ICU stay for survivors at ICU discharge, days 12 (7–21) 11 (7–19) 14 (9–25) <0.001
Hospital stay for survivors at hospital discharge, days 25 (15–42) 24 (14–40) 27 (17–48) <0.001
Introduction of RRT 375 (21.3) 25 (2.4) 350 (48.1) <0.001

Values are expressed as median (interquartile range) or as N (%), as appropriate. Group comparisons of continuous variables were performed using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Categorical data were compared using Pearson’s chi-square test. A two-sided P<0.05 was considered for significance.

Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; SpO2, peripheral oxygen saturation; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; PaO2, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood; PaCO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide; PCT, procalcitonin; RRT, renal replacement therapy.

Ann Lab Med 2024;44:144~154 https://doi.org/10.3343/alm.2023.0083

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